Valuation methodology has traditionally been classified into five methods:

1. Comparative method. Used for most types of property where there is good evidence of previous sales. This is analogous to the sales comparison approach outlined above.

2. Investment method. Used for most commercial (and residential) property that is producing future cash flows through the letting of the property. If the current Estimated Rental Value (ERV) and the passing income are known, as well as the market-determined equivalent yield, then the property value can be determined by means of a simple model. Note that this method is really a comparison method, since the main variables are determined in the market. In standard US practice, however, the closely related capitalizing of NOI is confounded with the DCF method under the general classification of the income capitalization approach (see above).

3. Residual method. Used for properties ripe for development or redevelopment or for bare land only.

4. Profit method. Used for trading properties where evidence of rates is slight, such as hotels, restaurants and old-age homes. A three-year average of operating income (derived from the profit and loss or income statement) is capitalized using an appropriate yield. Note that since the variables used are inherent to the property and are not market-derived, therefore unless appropriate adjustments are made, the resulting value will be Value-in-Use or Investment Value, not Market Value.

5. Cost method. Used for land and buildings of special character for which profit figures cannot be obtained or land and buildings for which there is no market because of their public service or heritage characteristics. Both the residual method and the cost method would be grouped in the US under the cost approach (see above).


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